Federal Polytechnic Ilaro Journal of Pure And Applied Science 2021-12-29T22:03:07+00:00 Dr. (Mrs.) O. E. Oduntan Open Journal Systems <p>You are welcome to the Federal Polytechnic Ilaro – Journal of Pure<br />and Applied Sciences (FEPI-JOPAS) an official publication of the School of Pure and<br />Applied Science of the Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro, Ogun State.<br />FEPI-JOPAS embraces all the areas of pure and Applied Sciences and encourages<br />interdisciplinary collaboration among our Scientist and Technologist in Nigeria and<br />Abroad.<br />The vision of FEPI-JOPAS is to serve as a medium for showering scientist and Technologies<br />research outputs, also for development and advancement of science and Technology in Nigeria.<br />It is high time we started thinking of need driven research that will assist us in solving our peculiar problems.</p> Physicochemical Evaluation and Pasting Properties of Flours, Biscuit and Chinchin Prepared from Okara Fortified Plantain – Sorghum Blends. 2021-12-29T13:15:49+00:00 N. O. ILELABOYE T. I. JESUSINA <p>This study evaluated the quality of biscuits and chin-chin made from okara enriched plantain-sorghum flour blends. The flours of plantain(P), Sorghum (S) and Okara (O) blended in per cent ratios: T1 (100 plantain :0 sorghum); T2 (75 plantain:25 sorghum); T3 (50 plantain:50 sorghum); T4(25 plantain: 75 sorghum); T5 (0 plantain: 100 sorghum:); 5 % okara flour was added to 95 % of each plantain – sorghum flour blend to give samples T6 to T10. Standard analytical procedures were utilized to analyse the flours' proximate composition, energy, functional properties and pasting properties, and sensory attributes of the biscuit and chin-chin were also analysed. The proximate composition results of composite flour, biscuit and chin-chin showed that sample T1 possessed the lowest moisture and fat content and the highest carbohydrate. Sample T10 has the highest protein content, sample T6 has the highest ash and fibre content, and sample T8 has the highest energy value. Substantial variation occurred in functional properties: sample T10 has the highest values of the bulk density, water and oil absorption capacities and the least value in sample T1. Swelling power and solubility index show no significant difference having sample T10 with the highest value and sample T1 having the least value, and foaming stability varied significantly between the samples, with T6 possessing the maximum value and the minimum observed in T10. This study showed that the nutritional results qualities of the biscuit and chin-chin produced from plantain-sorghum composite flour are enhanced by fortification with okara.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Federal Polytechnic Ilaro Journal of Pure And Applied Science Framework Model of Facial Analysis for Gender Classification Using Convolutional Neural Network 2021-12-29T13:41:02+00:00 A. I. OJO A. F. EBISIN <p>Classification is a technique used for solving problems. Several problems are solved with this technique. Gender classification is gaining ground due to different areas of applications such as surveillance, security, and monitory, etc. Different authors have presented different research articles in the domain of gender classification and adopted several methods for analysing facial images in other to predict or classify the images. These methods adopted are either traditional algorithms, hybridised techniques, or neural networks to obtain better accuracy and reliability. This article is aimed at developing a model where gender can be classified. Successful classification needs a robust method with good experimental analysis that is why we present a gender classification using a Convolutional Neural Network for reliability and accuracy using a local dataset. Although, most of the articles in this research area made use of popular datasets such as FERET, AT &amp; T, FACE94, AR to mention but few and/or compare two or more datasets to know the one with the best performance accuracy. Our state of heart method was used on local data set where sizable numbers of images (490 images) were captured and five different augmentations such as blur, top hat, lightening, etc were carried out on the images. The dataset was divided into two with 70% of the images used for training and the remaining 30% for testing. This was done with the use of a random selection algorithm. Required 227by227by3 image size was pre-trained by AlexNet a CNN. The experimental results generated several tables, Area under Curve (AUC) and Confusion Matrix.&nbsp; Our proposed ConvNet on our local dataset improves gender classification accuracy. In conclusion, the parameters for evaluation of performance were calculated and their Average performance scores were highlighted in bold. For&nbsp;<strong>Precision (89.6272); Recall (89.6276); Accuracy (92.8094) and F1-score (89.6237).</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;The best performance average score was&nbsp;<strong>92.8094</strong>&nbsp;under the Accuracy.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Federal Polytechnic Ilaro Journal of Pure And Applied Science A Survey of Fish Hatcheries in Yewa South and Yewa North Local Government Areas of Ogun State, Nigeria 2021-12-29T14:26:32+00:00 K. O, YUSUFF E. O. Ibidapo-Obe M. I Sangosina <p>Fish culture today is hardly possible without the artificial propagation of fish seeds of preferred culturable fish species. This has led to this research work to determine the number of fish hatcheries in the immediate local environment and assess the constraints encountered in this sub-sector of agriculture. A field survey through the use of well structured questionnaire was conducted in two local government areas of Ogun State namely Yewa South and Yewa North LGAs. The study revealed that there are 57 fish hatcheries in the two Local Governments. Majority of the respondents (89.5%) were males in their active youthful age. Out of these, 94.7% are privately owned (sole ownership), 3.5% are on partnership and 1.8% are government owned with majority having annual production above 100,000 fingerlings. The intensity of hatchery in each town under the study area are Ilaro (16), Owode (13), Ilobi (1), Imasai (10), Oke –Odan (2), Oja-Odan (14) and Ibese (1), with Ilaro having the highest number of fish hatcheries. This study has revealed that the quantity and quality of fish hatcheries in Yewa South and Yewa North LGAs of Ogun State need to be increased.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Federal Polytechnic Ilaro Journal of Pure And Applied Science Effect of Aqueous Blend of Three Herbs on Haematobiochemical Indices of Broiler Chicken at Starter Phase 2021-12-29T14:45:31+00:00 O. O. Akinlade P.O. Okusanya O.O. Okparavero <p>This research was centered on the effects of aqueous blend of three herbs on hematobiological indices of broiler chickens at the starter phase. Newly hatched Cobb 500 broiler chicks totaling 120 were allotted to 4 groups randomly. The groups namely Treatment 1 serves as the control without aqueous blend, other three treatments received 50 mL of; Scent leaf aqueous blend (SLAB), Ginger aqueous blend (GIAB) and Garlic aqueous blend (GAAB) to 1 litre of drinking water respectively. At 7 and 21 days of the experiment, blood samples were taken for heamatology and biochemical analysis. The observed values of RBC, WBC, Hb, and PCV (red blood cell, white blood cells, packed cell volume and hemoglobin) were significantly different from the control group at p &lt;0.05 with the fourth group having the highest value. It was observed on day 21 that the group fed garlic aqueous blend had levels of AST and ALT reduced than other groups. The low level of AST and ALT means that Garlic has hepatoprotective ability. Garlic aqueous blend group shows significantly high values (p &lt; 0.05) of albumin, total serum protein, and globulin in contrast to other groups. Consequently, all values observed are within the reference range of broiler chicken. This results shows that the aqueous blends can be used at a safety dose 50 mL / liter of drinking water as an alternative to conventional growth promoters.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Federal Polytechnic Ilaro Journal of Pure And Applied Science Effective Communication as a Tool for Good Governance in Nigeria 2021-12-29T15:02:08+00:00 Maria Obun-Andy A. O. Banjo <p>A critical element of governance is how citizens, leaders and public establishments relate to one another in order to make things work. Without a structure communication systems and procedures which permit the two-way communication between nation and citizens, it is sensitive to assume how nations may be responsive to public requirement and prospects. The ability to communicate effectively with citizens is one of the major functions of good governance.&nbsp; This study investigates effective communication as a tool for good governance in Nigeria.&nbsp; The survey research method was adopted and questionnaire was used as data collection instrument.&nbsp; Using the convenient sample of 500 respondents.&nbsp; Findings showed that the flow of information between the government and the citizens was not adequate and the extent to which the media have discharged their duties towards ensuring adequate flow of information between the government and the citizens.&nbsp; The study recommends that journalists should show more prominent obligation toward objectivity, stability and collective accountability in the inclusion as well as information dissemination.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Federal Polytechnic Ilaro Journal of Pure And Applied Science In Vivo Antiplasmodial Effect of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Crude Extract of Phyllanthus Niruri 2021-12-29T15:22:10+00:00 S. O. Omotayo A. O. Fafioye <p>This research was designed to study the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of <em>Phyllanthus niruri</em> on <em>Plasmodium berghei</em> infected mice. <em>P.niruri</em> is known to have antimalaria properties. Crude extract was fractionated with ethyl acetate. 50, 100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight of the ethyl acetate fraction was dosed to albino mice infected with <em>Plasmodium berghei</em>. The Plasmodium count, packed cell volume and body weight were measured before, during and after the experiment. Result showed that all doses of the extract exhibited parasitemia inhibition at 88.88%, 85.23%, 79.68%, and 82.54 % which was not statistically significant (P&lt;0.05) when compared with the positive control chloroquine of (90.37%). The Packed cell volume was observed to reduce across group after treatment when compared to before the treatment. However, weight gain was observed in treated groups. Result shows that the ethyl acetate fraction of <em>P. niruri</em> has a curative effect on <em>Plasmodium berghei</em> and can be utilized to treat malaria after further purification to isolate the chemical responsible for the activity.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Federal Polytechnic Ilaro Journal of Pure And Applied Science COVID-19 CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA AND BRAZIL 2021-12-29T15:35:17+00:00 Peter A. Buoye O.Olutayo OJUAWO <p>This paper evaluates covid-19 in Nigeria and Brazil after 134 days. Nigeria and Brazil recorded their index cases at the same time, have almost the same population and climatic conditions. Brazil recorded 2,076,635 cases after 134 days while Nigeria recorded 36,663 cases. This high number of confirmed cases in Brazil was the bases for this research. Four independent variables were considered for the evaluation. These variables are; population, number of sample test, temperature and early lockdown policy. Secondary data, which were collected from the website of Nigeria centre for disease control and worldometer were used to analyze the number of covid-19 cases recorded after 134 days in Nigeria and Brazil. After carrying out Correlation and regression analyze on the data, the result showed p = .077 for Brazil and p = .073 for Nigeria which indicate evidence for the null hypothesis that says dependent variable (covid-19 confirmed cases) does not depend on the temperature of the location. Analysis also showed that the ratio of sample test in Brazil to Nigeria was not significant enough (18:1) when compared to what was determined from the bivariate model of the two countries (409:1). Lockdown policy, which is a dummy variable (classification variable), have p = .0001, this is p-value for a one-tailed t-test. This p-value is less than 0.05, the bench mark, and showed a statistically significant difference against the null hypothesis which says dependent variable (covid-19 confirmed cases) does not depend on the lockdown policy of the governments. The paper concluded that early lockdown policy which is a part of integrated coordination in crisis management was responsible for the low confirmed cases of covid-19 recorded in Nigeria.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Federal Polytechnic Ilaro Journal of Pure And Applied Science Assessment of Public Toilets Facilities Provision and Management in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria- An Overview of The Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro, Ogun State. 2021-12-29T15:51:39+00:00 Olarenwaju G. Elesin Christianah Obafunmiso <p><em>Open defecation is a common occurrence in developing countries, particularly in Nigeria. However</em> <em>the importance of public conveniences at Nigerian higher institutions cannot be overstated since they help to improve the hygiene of the campus environment. The harmony of campus environment would not be completed without provision of standard public toilets facilities</em> <em>A detailed examination of the environment of tertiary institutions reveals that the absence of suitable public toilet facilities in crucial areas is a hindrance to the institution's adoption of a full-fledged academic environment. The aim of this study is to assess the provision and management of public toilet facilities in tertiary institutions using the Federal Polytechnic Ilaro, Ogun State as a case study. Both primary and secondary sources of data collection were used for the study whereby convenience and purposive sampling techniques were also used for the selection of respondents (students) and available public toilet facilities in the study area with 350 structured questionnaires administered to the selected respondents in the study area. Findings revealed improper usage and lack of effective management of the available public toilet facilities in the study area despite adequacy in its provision by the school management considering the number of users while the study concludes that proper monitoring culture should be adopted on the use of the facilities through a time to time checking and appropriate sanctions to any defaulter who misuse the facilities.</em></p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Federal Polytechnic Ilaro Journal of Pure And Applied Science Effects of Neem Leaves (Azadirachta Indica) And Cassava Peels on the Performance of West African Dware Goat 2021-12-29T16:27:49+00:00 O. M Ajeigbe M. I. Sangosina T. O. Ogunseitan Raimot. A. Lawal K. O. Yusuff <p>Ruminant animals like goats are one of the major animals reared by farmers in West Africa. This paper focus on West African dwarf (WAD) sixteen female goats weighing between the range of 5.33-5.37kg were used for the experiment lasted for 56 days, which examined the effects of Neem leaves (<em>Azadirachta indica</em>) and Cassava peel supplements (<em>Manihot Species</em>) on the performance of West African Dwarf Goats. The control diets which contained 100% Neem leaves and the other three diets in which Neem leaves were replaced with Cassava peels at 25%, 50% and 75% levels respectively&nbsp; which constituted&nbsp; four treatments. Allocation of four goats each into four treatments groups , in which each group were exposed to different experimental diets. The result obtained showed that the initial bodyweight and final body weight of the experimental animals were not affected by Neem leaves inclusion. Feed intake was significantly affected by Neem leaves intake. Weight loss was recorded for the animals in all the treatment and those on 100% level of Neem inclusion could not survive on Neem alone. The treatments shows that there are no significant difference in the conversion ratio of the feed intake. The digestibility of dry matter was lower in treatment II while it was high in treatment IV and Nitrogen utilization was lower in treatment IV and treatment III has the highest Nitrogen retained value. Hence it is recommended at below 25% levels. In conclusion, WAD Goats cannot survive on Neem leaves alone since the Neem leaves&nbsp; given to feed&nbsp; WAD Goats alone resulted into weight loss.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Federal Polytechnic Ilaro Journal of Pure And Applied Science Formulation of Natural Products Repellents for the Control of Cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) 2021-12-29T16:52:55+00:00 Fatimah Abdussalam Adewole Adekanmi <p><em>The use of synthetic pesticides for insect pest control has been under serious attention due to the deleterious effect imposed on both human and the environment. </em><em>This present study aimed at evaluating the effect of selected indigenous plants (</em><em>Azadirachta indica, Nepata cateria and Citrus sinensis</em><em>) for their repellency against cockroach (</em><em>Periplaneta americana)</em><em>. 200 adult cockroaches were used for the experiment. Cold maceration was the method of extraction of botanicals using ethanol and afterward, experimental insects were introduced to each of the plant extracts using five different doses.&nbsp; Inclusion dose were; 0%extract+100% biscuit (Control), 25%extract+75% biscuit, 50%extract+50% biscuit, 75%Extract+25% biscuit and 100%extract+0% biscuit. Repellency was observed and recorded at interval of 2, 4-, 8-, 12- and 24-hours duration. Results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis to determine the mean repellency, excess proportion index (PI) and percentage repellency. Neem extract showed the highest repellency (93%), followed by Catnip (86%) and Citrus oil had the least (74%) at the highest dose of 2.0g in 24hours exposure. </em><em>All experimental plants used showed high repellency and maximum PI values in the highest dose (2g). It was concluded that the three botanicals used in this study could be adopted as a repellent in cockroach control.</em></p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Federal Polytechnic Ilaro Journal of Pure And Applied Science Managing Air Pollution Through Sustainable Landscaping in the Emerging Lagos Megacity 2021-12-29T19:59:00+00:00 M. E Olubodun O. A. Adetona <p><em>Worldwide, air pollution is a major source of mortality, sickness, and social distress. It is similarly a troubling truth in Lagos, Nigeria's commercial centre and one of the world's fastest-growing megacities. Despite mounting worries about the lethal consequences of air pollution, Lagos lacks both a policy and a comprehensive management plan. This study examined landscaping as a strategy for combating air pollution and environmental degradation in Lagos megacity with a particular focus on Ikeja Local Government Area. The methodology adopted by this study comprised field survey and review of related literature for purpose of collecting primary and secondary data respectively. A structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data from 475 households which were sampled from 95,426 estimated household population using the Taro Yamane sampling model. These findings necessitate an immediate plan of action to enhance the air quality in the city, with a particular focus on the major pollution sources: road transportation, industrial emissions, and power generation.</em></p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Federal Polytechnic Ilaro Journal of Pure And Applied Science Removal Of Pb2+ And Zn2+ From Aqueous Solution Using Eggshell Powder As Adsorbent: Kinetics And Equilibrium Studies 2021-12-29T20:19:23+00:00 Adetola A. Ajayi Olawatosin O. Adegbola <p>The goal of this study is to use locally produced chicken eggshell powders to remove Pb<sup>2+</sup> and Zn<sup>2+</sup> from aqueous solutions using an adsorption approach. A local poultry farm provided the chicken eggshell powder used as an adsorbent. By testing their contact time effects in solution with Pb<sup>2+</sup> and Zn<sup>2+</sup>, the adsorbent efficacy was compared to that of other similar biomasses. pH, contact time, beginning metal ion concentration, and sorbent dose all influence the sorption process, with pH 7.0 and a contact time of 60 minutes being the best. The adsorption kinetics were studied using pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order rate measurements. For the adsorption isotherm investigation, Langmuir and Freundlich models were used. With R2 of 0.834 and 0.993, the equilibrium adsorption data of Pb<sup>2+</sup> and Zn<sup>2+</sup> followed the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, respectively. The pseudo-second order rate model best represented the process, while the Freundlich isotherm model was the best fit for Pb<sup>2+</sup> and Zn<sup>2+</sup> adsorption onto eggshells as an adsorbent, according to the kinetics data. Finally, chicken eggshell powder can be used as a low-cost, effective local adsorbent for the removal of Pb<sup>2+</sup> and Zn<sup>2+</sup> from aqueous solutions.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Federal Polytechnic Ilaro Journal of Pure And Applied Science